Conflating marginal and conditional treatment effects: Comments on “Assessing the performance of population adjustment methods for anchored indirect comparisons: A simulation study”


In this commentary, we highlight the importance of: (1) carefully considering and clarifying whether a marginal or conditional treatment effect is of interest in a population-adjusted indirect treatment comparison; and (2) developing distinct methodologies for estimating the different measures of effect. The appropriateness of each methodology depends on the preferred target of inference.

Statistics in Medicine
Gianluca Baio
Gianluca Baio
Professor of Statistics and Health Economics